Several years later, a new company took over -- the California and Oregon Lumber Company, or the C&O as it was usually called. The Brookings Timber and Lumber Company, holding 32,000 acres of Douglas fire timber, merged with a California concern having 12,000 acres of redwood trees in northern Del Norte County, Calif. John Brookings had already sold his stock in the old company, and Robert Brookings converted his interest into stock in the new company.
Managed by Jim Owens, a lumber man from Wisconsin, the C&O soon greatly expanded the mill and the town facilities. It built a logging railroad up the north bank of the Chetco River to the north fork, and also a spur line which crossed the main stream at the mount of Jacks Creek and wound its way up that stream almost to its headwaters. This area supplied fir logs for the saw mill.
There were three logging camps at different sites along the railroad, with bunkhouses and cook houses and box cars for men with families. Logging in those days was done with steam donkey engines and hand-pulled crosscut saws.
The C&O also built a fine 1,200-foot wharf form the shore out into Chetco Cove where the water was 25 feet deep at low tide. During the following years, this wharf was used to load ships with a total of 400 million board feet of lumber and to unload thousands of tons of freight.
To permit rapid loading or unloading of two vessels at the same time, the rails on the wharf were double-tracked the first 800 feet, and four-tracked the rest of the way out. On land, the railroad tracks connected with single rails, making a big circuit along the present Railroad Avenue from the lumber camps up the Chetco to the mill and then going south along the coastal bluff, about 100 yards from present Memory Lane. The tracks converged near the river and crossed it on a high and winding wooden trestle bridge, passing through Harbor along present Oceanview Drive.
The new sewer system that is being established will soon be completed, as the tile is now being laid.
Six or seven new houses are under construction, while two have recently been completed.
The new second-class hotel called the St. George Hotel has been under construction since the fore part of July and will be completed in a very short time. It is a plastered building, fitted with electricity, bathrooms with hot and cold water, and has 79 rooms in it. The furniture arrived the second on the Mandelay, a boat from San Francisco.
Six new sets of logging trucks also came on the Mandelay ... Cement sidewalks are being laid on Chetco Avenue and are the first of this kind in Brookings. - Gold Beach Reporter, Nov. 23, 1916
The present Chetco Inn was built for the C&O Company in 1916 by William Cochran. This was the second hotel in the town the first being the St. George.
Lively at Brookings
We stayed in the town of Brookings at Chetco Sunday night and were surprised at the strides the young town in making. All the faces we saw, except two or three, were strangers. It is evident that somebody in that town is directing the operatives to do things. They don't do things by halves, either, in Brookings. Gold Beach Reporter, June 28, 1917
By the early 1920s, a mid-westerner from Little Rock, Arkansas, Frank D. Stout, for whom Stout Grove in Jedediah Smith Park is named, gained control of the C&O Lumber Co. He and other family members often visited Brookings by ship from the company's offices in San Francisco. his nephew, William Stout, spent several years here in management. He was once visited by his mother, Mrs. James Stout, who saw the need for a community church building in which various Protestant sects could worship. She per-suaded the company to donate a site for such a building and paid much of the building costs out of her own pocket.
Two steamers the Frank D. Stout and Necanicum were built to make weekly cargo trips to California coastal ports. Together these ships could transport 1,500,000 feet of sawed lumber each trip.
In 1921 the Company started construction of a long railroad bridge over the mouth of the Chetco River so that the immense redwood logs could be hauled form the logging camps in California to the mill. At that time the bridge was considered an engineering feat because part of the trestle had to be built on a gradual curve of some 70 feet above the water. The trestle completion in early 1922 was celebrated with a ceremony in January when W. J. Ward and a Mr. Gray rode with engineer Vern Cross across the river.
Three years later a severe winter storm began to move the bridge upstream. Workmen attached huge anchors to try to hold it back, but the bridge continued to move somewhat. In spite of that, logging trains were still running over it when the mill closed down six months later. Two months after the closing the railroad was junked. In the 1930s the bridge burned. One of its concrete piers still stands on the Brookings side of the river.
Seek Summer Home Sites
The country along the Chetco River back from the coast is fast becoming popular among local townspeople as an ideal location for summer homes. The Chetco is one of the most beautiful small streams on the coast, and with the construction of a good road to open up the adjacent country, it will attract a great many settlers and home seekers. Among those seeking summer home sties on the banks of the Chetco is Jas. H. Owen, president of the California and Oregon Company, as well as other officials and employees of the Company.
- Gold Beach Reporter, July 14, 1921
Steam Stout in with Big Cargo
The Frank D. Stout, operated by the California and Oregon lumber company, arrived in port Saturday with a cargo of over 500 tons of freight, including over 200 tons of steel which is to be used in the RR construction. A portion of the incoming cargo consisted of five new automobiles which were recently purchased by local people. The vessel carried over a million feet of lumber on the return trip.
- Gold Beach Reporter, July 28, 1921
Pupil Writes of Early Brookings
A 7th grade pupil, Eleen Shripshire, wrote about Brookings in the form of a letter. "Dear Friend: -- I thought you would be impressed in Brookings and will tell you about it.
We came here with Mr. Brookings when I was a baby. There were only two houses built then, and I stayed at the Ferry ranch for two or three months. It is the place where the ferry across the Chetco River was built.
Brookings is a lumber town with a population of about 450 people. When the mill was built in 1913 more people began to come in and many homes were built on Fredalda street, first, until the place became a good size town. We now have three hotels, a garage, theater, company hospital, a restaurant or mess hall, a school house, and many others.
- Gold Beach Reporter, Dec. 22, 1921
Local musicians formed an orchestra as early as 1922. They played to a crowded hall,where supper was served during the intermission. Two years later Brookings boasted an orchestra and a town band of 30 instruments, with Mr.. G. Salisbury as manager. They practiced in the Amusement Hall every Monday and Thursday evening.
- Gold Beach Reporter, July 3, 1924
Steadily the population increased. The United States Census of 1920 counted 421 persons in Brookings, 451 in Chetco (Harbor). The Registered Voters list for the Primary Election in May, 1918, is interesting both for numbers and for political persuasions:
PLACE CHART HERE
Town Republicans Democrats Scatter
Chetco (Harbor) 66 37 25
Brookings 92 29 20
Criticism and Defense
When the C&O Company assumed the assets of the Brookings Lumber Company it took over ownership of the Brookings townsite. Early in 1922, the C&O "went public" so far as the town was concerned, and put on the market all of the houses and most of the business properties. Within four months, nearly all of the businesses and much of the residential district was sold to private parties. Still there was criticism of the "one company town." Jack Regen, Brookings business manager for the Gold Beach Reporter, undertook to defend the Company in the words:
The talk that Brookings is a one man town is all bosh. It is true, of course, that the entire townsite is, or rather was at one time, owned by the California & Oregon Company, a concern with millions of dollars behind it, owning vast fir and redwood timber lands through that section which they are interested in developing, Recently the Company placed the townsite on the market and encourages people and business men to locate there. The Company is grading the streets, putting in sewer and water mains in both business and residence districts in order to eliminate this expenses and provide all modern conveniences for those who decide to locate. Understand, the Company is not begging people to locate. No indeed. Not that. They are simply interested in developing a town to provide a source of reliable workmen upon whom they can depend to assist in turning the wheels oftheir lumbering plant and activities operated in conjunction with it.
It is true they are building a large store building to accommodate their general merchandise business, but aside from this department together with the hotel and rooming houses, which are essential to their industry,the Company has not desire to compete with individuals and are disposing of the enterprises, including the garage, laundry, moving picture house, etc. which they have maintained for the accommodation of their employees.
Take the case of J.A. Driskell, for instance. When the town was first started a number of years ago, Mr. Driskell was fortunate enough to secure a location in the business district, and thereafter the property was taken off the market. Mr. Driskell erected a hotel on his lot, and later put in a grocery store. For years his business was the only private business establishment in Brookings, and Mr. Driskell has only praise for the treatment he has received from the Company during his residence there. Others throughout southern Curry say the same thing; in fact, there are very few large corporations that have so universal a reputation for fairness, both to employees and outside individuals, than has California and Oregon Company. 1
In the 1920s, travel from Grants Pass to Brookings required two days, by way of Crescent City, California, and then north to our area. Transportation was by team and wagon, with an overnight stop usually at Monumental, near the present-day Patrick's Creek Lodge. Later, when the roadway was sufficiently improved, the route was covered in one day, half the distance by team and the other half in a large automobile, usually a Pierce Arrow or a Packard, rugged enough to stand the rough roads and the considerable amount of low and second gear operation.
Not until 1924, when the Roosevelt Highway was completed from the California line to the Chetco area, were people here really connected with the outside world. There was still no adequate road northward from Brookings, except by going to Coquille and then eastward to connect with the inland Pacific Highway.
For years it had been evident that some public pressure upon the State Highway Commission was needed. in the early 1920s that pressure began with the formation of the Brookings Commercial Club. It had 150-200 members, including people in the entire south end of the county as well as in Brookings proper, Harry Caltoft was its president; Mark C. Wood and Thos. Cotter, vice presidents; Arthur G. Walker, secretary; and Roy M. Cooley, treasurer. Through Club efforts the Oregon State Highway Commission was induced to start a survey for the Roosevelt Highway north from the California line to the Chetco River, and also to built a two-mile road from the line north to the Winchuck bridge. That was just the beginning of extensive, continued and controversial efforts to get a coastal highway built all the way north to Astoria.
In 1923 the Roosevelt Highway Association was formed by people from Coos, Curry and Del Norte Counties. W.J. Ward was a delegate from Brookings. He introduced a resolution, unanimously adopted, calling upon the Oregon legislature to provide financing by refunding bonds coming due.
The next year a big auto caravan of Eureka business men was taken over the existing inadequate road to Coos Bay, to acquaint them with the scenic beauty of the coast in this area. The Curry County Reporter published a special "Roosevelt Highway" issue to help people visualize the Roosevelt Highway as "the most scenic and comfortable highway in the whole of the United States."
In July 1924 seven notable men toured the highway including the president of Columbia University, Nicholas Murray Butler, and the president of the Crocker National Bank of San Francisco. They told a reporter:
Each member of the party was surprised at the beauty of scenery and delightful climate ... and predict great things when once the Roosevelt Highway is completed.
The pressure was on, and that month a final survey of the road from Brookings to Pistol River was ordered by the Highway Commission.
Two years later some residents of Astoria, Warrenton, Gearhart and Cannon Beach used their vacations for a two-week motor caravan trip down the coast to Crescent City. The route was open now, and the publicity about this trip further emphasized the need for a hard surface highway all along the coast.
Roosevelt Highway Open to Public
The Roosevelt Highway between Pistol River and Brookings was opened to the public last Friday and is now being used by the traveling public. It has not yet been graveled and is rough in spots, but is a great improvement over the old mountain trail that has been used for so many years.
-- Gold Beach Reporter, July 7, 1927
Finally came the big day in May, 1932, when the Rogue River Bridge in Gold Beach was dedicated and the Roosevelt Highway finished and declared open. Thousands of people attended the ceremonies which included bands of music, snappy drum corps, uniformed marching organizations, scores of entertainment features, and nine speeches by state government and private organization notables. Now there was a hard surface coastal road all the way from California to the Columbia River. Brookings and Harbor and Curry County generally were at last out of virtual isolation.
Mary Moore Worthylake, a teacher here in 1924, recalls the old travel conditions vividly:
My school was four miles up the Chetco River from Brookings, which was then a thriving sawmill town. The coast highway had not yet been built and Curry County was quite isolated. In winter it took four hours by Model T to drive to Gold Beach, the county seat, due to the muddy, deep-rutted roads. The people along the Chetco River had never seen an airplane, at least not around there, and when they heard that I was expecting one to land nearby I was the center of attraction. (The expected aviator was her fiance, one of the early "barnstormers" who eked out a living by taking passengers on short flights.)
I waited in Harbor until sundown but no airplane arrived. Mark and Bertha Wood, owners of the Harbor general store, asked me to spend the night. The next day we picnicked on the beach and kept watch for a plane. That day, and on the following ones, I had my first taste of what it meant to be an aviator's wife, listening for the sound of an airplane motor, watching weather conditions, preparing meals which went uneaten, waiting -- waiting -- 2
He never did fly here. Six months later they married in California and on their honeymoon flew up this way, only to crash in the mountains. It took them two days to walk out. The week after that, the first plane that actually flew over the Chetco area was flown by Vernon Bookwalter, en route from Portland to Crescent City.
Also in 1924 the wharf on Chetco Point came into national prominence when the first around-the-world airplane flight stopped here. One of its planes had developed engine trouble, so the amphibious craft tied up to the wharf until a new engine was shipped here and installed.
As is often the case, social regression paralleled technological advance. In that same year, 1924, Brookings was struck by another movement of the early 1920s.
Klan Organized in Brookings Last Night
Last Thursday night in a quiet and unostentatious manner a Ku Klux Klan organization, with a goodly membership composing the best element of the locality. Organizers came into Brookings, so to a number of local men, and within eight hours they had an organization assured that neither lacks for numbers nor quality.
Since the news has leaked out about the Klan it is understood that the bootleggers and gamblers have shown more concern than at any time in months, even when the county officers have been around.
-- Gold Beach Reporter, Feb. 21, 1924
A fiery cross burned on a hill back of Brookings for several hours, during which time the Klan initiated into the order a large number of new members.
-- Gold Beach Reporters, May 8, 1924
The Community Church congregation experienced quite a thrill last Sunday night.
Just at the close of the evening offering, the rear doors opened, and seven hooded Knights of the Ku Klux Klan marched up the aisle and formed a half circle in front of the pulpit.
Rev. Reese seemed not the least frightened or guilty of wrong doing, and he inquired what the brothers wanted. One of the full-robed Knights handed him a big fat envelope and remarked that it contained a donation for the use of the church; and then the Knights turned about and in marching order quietly left the church.
It was a new experience for the people here, and many marveled at the occurrence; and the ushers and some others were taken a little aback, but probably in the future these will become more numerous and people will become accustomed to it.
-- Gold Beach Reporter, Dec. 25, 1924
Despite the short-lived presence of the Klan, to the residents of Brookings, their future appeared bright. Robert Brookings had sold his holdings in the C&O Company to Frank D. Stout of Little Rock, Arkansas. W.E. Ribbeneck, now its general manager, was shipping out about a million and a half board feet of lumber every week. Up to that time nearly 400 million feet of fir and redwood lumber had been shipped -- with hardly an appreciable dent in the timber stands. Then came June 18, 1925 -- a day long to be remembered.